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L-PBF
Laser Powder Bed Fusion

Synonyms and Working Principle 

Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology for metal parts. It is often referred to as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) or Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). This technology requires an inert gas atmosphere and a laser whose thermal energy is used to melt metal powder which is stored in a powder bed. As this happens repetitively layer by layer, the material is fused together. With the help of support structures, L-PBF enables the realization of complex geometries that are not achievable through subtractive manufacturing methods.

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Advantages of L-PBF

Powder Bed technologies can realize highly complex parts. Due to the usage of a laser in Laser Powder Bed Fusion, the manufacturing process is very accurate and is not susceptible to tooling wear. Furthermore, L-PBF does not require any additional tooling and represents an economic manufacturing technique in the area of additive manufacturing. Another great upside of Powder Bed technologies is the recyclability of unused powder.

L-PBF Use cases

L-PBF is the leading metal additive manufacturing technology. It is equally suitable for producing functional prototypes as well as engineered parts. Due to its high precision this technology can realize complex and dimensionally stable parts.

Our offered materials for L-PBF

Main characteristics

This aluminum alloy is characterized by a good balance of strength, hardness, and dynamic properties values. Furthermore, AlSi10Mg has good thermal as well as good electrical conductivity. It can also be used for printed parts that have to function in moist environments due to its corrosion resistance.

Use cases

AlSi10Mg is often used in housing applications. Additionally, this aluminum alloy can be used for functional prototypes due to the possibility of realizing complex parts. Other areas of usage are in heat exchangers because of its good thermal conductivity or in lightweight geometries like brackets.

Main characteristics

Copper (Cu) is one of the most flexible materials for engineering. It has particularly good electrical and thermal conductivity – its thermal conductivity is up to ten times higher than the one of many steels. Its good electrical conductivity makes copper well-suited for electrical engineering. Copper is also very resistant to corrosion.

The CuNi2SiCr alloy is a thermally hardenable copper-based alloy that offers a very good combination between thermal and electrical conductivity.  It offers good rigidity of the printed part. This alloy also has a good corrosion resistance and can generally be used in more harsh conditions where pure copper is not suited, thanks to the addition of nickel and silicon.

Use cases

The combination of properties makes CuNi2SiCr ideal for electrical engineering parts, tooling industry, and for parts used by welding technologies.

Main characteristics

This copper alloy has an advantageous combination of electrical and thermal conductivity. It also features good mechanical properties, which makes this a popular material across industries. 

Use cases

CuCrZr is widely used. For example, for molds and cooling inserts for metal casting, electrodes, welding technology, and current-carrying parts for electro-technology such as induction coils. 

Main characteristics

Copper (Cu) is one of the most flexible materials for engineering. It has a particular good electrical and thermal conductivity – its thermal conductivity is up to ten times higher than the one of many steels. Its good electrical conductivity makes copper well-suited and therefore a popular material in electrical engineering. Copper is also very resistant to corrosion. CuCp is a high purity copper allowing generally a copper content over 99.95%, therefore it is mostly suitable where high electrical or heat conductivity are required.

Use cases

Given the characteristics pure copper (CuCP) is mostly used in applications that include electrical motors, inductors or other designs required for electrical applications, where high conductivity (both thermal or electrical) is the main criteria for material choice.

Prototypes for functional parts are also done using copper. Due to its corrosion resistance, copper is also often used in the marine industry. Another specific use case is the use of copper in heat exchangers.

Main characteristics

Hastelloy X is a nickel-based alloy also containing chromium iron and molybdenum. This combination allows for oxidation resistance while allowing at the same time high temperature strength and fabrication. It can be easily fabricated and formed due to good ductility. 

Use cases

Given its characteristics, this material is mainly used in turbine engines for parts located in the combustion zone like combustor cans, frame holders, and tailpipes. It can also be used in industrial furnace applications as well as chemical processing and petrochemical industries for pipes or valves. With a high usability for pressure vessels and heat exchangers, it is often used in nuclear and chemical reactors.  

Main characteristics

Inconel 625 (IN625) is a nickel-based non-ferrous alloy characterized by good performance in high-temperature environments with a special resistance against oxidation. This is mainly because IN625 has less iron and a higher concentration of chromium than other alloys. Further, IN625 is able to withstand high temperatures, much like other nickel superalloys. 

Use cases

Given its strong resistance to corrosion, Inconel 625 is ideal for environments involving harsh chemicals or sea water. This also makes it suitable for applications in the chemical processing industry and waste/pollution management. IN625 is commonly used for jet engine parts, high- or low-pressure valves, turbine shroud rings, flare stacks or heat exchangers. 

Main characteristics

Inconel 718 (IN718) is a nickel-based superalloy characterized by good performance in high-temperature environments. This is mainly because IN718 has good mechanical properties up to 700 °C. Furthermore, the metal has excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance, making it an ideal fit for the usage in demanding environments. Another advantage is the high strength of the material.

Use cases

IN718 is ideal for challenging use cases, such as those involving the aerospace or energy industry. It is often used in gas turbine parts, where it must withstand high forces and temperatures. This also makes the material ideal for exhaust components. Another common use is in the chemical industry, especially the oil industry for pipes or valves. 

Main characteristics

Scalmalloy is an aluminum-magnesium alloy that contains a comparatively high amount of scandium. This specific blend of elements gives Scalmalloy an improved strength over traditional casting alloys. Scalmalloy has a very high tensile strength with a low material density making it comparable to titanium-based alloys at room temperatures. Additionally, it shows very good corrosion resistance and allows for electric conductivity. Scalmalloy is an approved material under FIA regulations. 

Use cases

Aluminum-based alloys like Scalmalloy are ideal for lightweight engineering. It's frequently used in structural components for lightweight construction industries like aircraft or high-performance cars where every kilogram of weight matters. Other typical use cases are applications in robotics, semiconductor machinery, and high-quality prototypes.  

Main characteristics

The stainless-steel material 17-4 PH is characterized by high yield strength and good corrosion resistance. It is a multipurpose steel that can be heat treated to a hardness of 34 HRC with a tensile strength of 95% compared to the forged material. The steel can be welded using tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding or electric arc welding processes.  

Use cases

17-4 PH is capable of high-strength, robust metal parts that are often used for industrial applications.  

Main characteristics

316L is a stainless steel which stands out due to its very good corrosion resistance, making it a great fit for printed parts that are used in moist environments. Parts out of 316L can easily be re-worked or enhanced with further features given its good machinability. Furthermore, 316L has a high ductility.

Use cases

316L is used in a wide range of applications in the aerospace, automotive, food, and energy industries. It is also used for components like pipes and valves in the chemical industry. Another typical use case is wristwatch cases and bracelets.

Main characteristics

Titanium is used extensively due to its high strength and low weight ratio, high corrosion resistance, and oxidation resistance. All these properties make titanium and its alloys attractive materials for a range of different use cases and industries.  

Use cases

Due to titanium’s biocompatibility, it is used for medical and dental applications. Its high strength and comparatively low weight make it appealing for high-performance parts like gearboxes and connecting rod in racing cars and for bionic brackets in the aviation industry. 

Main characteristics

This tooling steel which is also known as MS1 is characterized by a high tensile strength as well as a high toughness. It can be used in higher temperatures since its mechanical properties remain stable up to approximately 400°C. Another advantage of 1.2709 is that its mechanical properties can be further optimized through heat treatment and martensitic hardening.

Use cases

1.2709 has various use cases. For example, it is often used for tooling inserts for injection molding, extrusion tool inserts, or for functional prototypes. Furthermore, this tooling steel can be used for tooling and fixtures. Due to its high strength, it is regularly used in motor sports and aviation.

Didn't find the material you are looking for?

We are constantly expanding and you can request specific materials going beyond our current standardized offering. Simply select “Other Material” in the order process and provide us your desired specifications in the comment section.

You can also reach out to us with your specific material requests at any time under customersupport@makerverse.ai 

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